Yoga Sutras an Introduction 20/01/2018
20 January 2018 @ 13:30 - 15:30
Organised by : Martin
The name Patanjali is linked to several myths and scholars. One version tells us that Patanjali fell from heaven into the upturned hands (Anjali mudra) of the virgin yogi Gonika,…
The name Patanjali is linked to several myths and scholars. One version tells us that Patanjali fell from heaven into the upturned hands (Anjali mudra) of the virgin yogi Gonika, who was a powerful yogi. Gonika was praying for an heir to pass on her teachings for the good of humanity.
The name Patanjali is also linked to major works on Sanskrit and Ayurveda, depending on sources. Some scholars will date the works on Sanskrit grammar and traditional Indian medicine to a different time period based on comparable documents. Patanjali would have been something of a renaissance man if he was responsible for all the works some attribute to him, and this may well fit in with the time he may have lived in.
Some explanations will say the sutras were a culmination of a blossoming philosophy of the time, and came from more than one source. It is not unusual to struggle to get to grips with dates and authors when it comes to the history of yoga. It appears to be usual for yoga teachers to not take credit for their work, and more usual to cite other teachers.
The Patanjali Sutras are the first time yoga teachings were recorded rather than passed on orally as was the usual before. So why would this be the case? Why not continue this way? Well if we look at the history of yoga through the four ages of yoga then it makes sense.
The philosophy of the sutras and Patanjali definitely has links to Samkhya philosophy. There is evidence that Samkhya philosophy can be traced back to 500 BC. Samkhya is one of the six orthodox philosophies of India, and sometimes described as atheistic, although I think agnostic might be a more accurate description. It is also dualist in that it teaches that the universe is controlled by two realities, Purusha and Prakriti. Samkhya is also known for its theory of the Gunas, or the three qualities. These qualities are sattva which represents balance, raaja which represents Fire and passion, and tamas which represents ignorance and lethargy.
The sutras can also be said to have been influenced by Vedantic culture, in that it promotes self-enquiry. The word Veda means Knowledge and anta means the end. So if we return to the four ages of yoga then the Vednatic period, or the end of the Vedas we have the Bhagavad Gita as a possible reference point. The Gita is a Vedantic text which is said to be set at the beginning of Kali Yuga or the last age of yoga/humanity.
According to the four ages of yoga, in the first age or Satya yuga the age of truth, there was no need for teachers as we existed in a state of enlightenment. As we moved further away for this state we needed more teaching, until the teachings need to be recorded. It was no longer possible to just sit by the feet of the teacher and hear their words, we needed written instruction.
So maybe we can start to put Patanjali and his Sutras into some sort of time frame. There is evidence there, although I must admit I like the mystery surrounding yoga. I don’t think yoga is meant to give us definite answers, we are meant to study and practice so that we evolve. Yoga is the path of self-transformation, if it gave us all the answers where would the fun be.
- Yamas: Universal morality
- Niyamas: Personal observances
- Asana: Body posture
- Pranayama: Breath control
- Pratyahara: Control of the senses
- Dharana: concentration and cultivating inner perceptual awarness
- Dhyana: Devotion, meditation on the divine
- Samadhi: Union with the divine
In this workshop we will look at:
- The history of yoga
- The yoga sutras, its place and purpose in the history of yoga
- Yamas & Niyamas
- The four padas (chapters)
- The kleshas (obstacles)
- Maya (veil of illusion)
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